Everything New in Windows 10’s April 2019 Update

A Windows 10 desktop with the new bright theme of the April 2019 update

The next update of Windows 10 is the April 2019 update, which is the 1903 version and received the code name 19H1 during development. It presents a bright theme, improvements in speed and a lot of polishing. There are no new crazy features like My people or Chronology.

This article includes everything new from the Insider Preview version. 18323, released on January 24, 2019.

Improved speed (thanks to Spectrum enhancements)

A snail superimposed on a central unit, demonstrating Spectrum slowdownsVLADGRIN / Shutterstock.com.

The Spectrum news shook the industry in early 2018. Spectrum is a design flaw in processorsand allows programs to escape restrictions and read the memory space of other programs. Microsoft has corrected Windows to help block Spectrum attacks, but the resulting patches reduces the performance of your PC In some cases, especially on the 2015 PCs and earlier, which do not have the necessary processor features to speed up the resolution.

From now on, a change in the update of April 2019 should virtually eliminate these inconveniences and speed up the backup of your PC. More specifically, Microsoft is allowing "retpoline" and "optimization of import". All you need to know is that your PC should go faster, and you will not even have to think about it. But here is a detailed document from Microsoft explaining how do these optimizations work if you are interested in the details.

RELATED: The next Windows 10 update will speed up your PC with better Spectrum patches

7GB of storage of your PC reserved for updates

Parameters indicating reserved storageMicrosoft

Windows updates may not install properly if your PC does not have enough free disk space. This can be a problem for inexpensive devices with only a small amount of built-in storage.

Microsoft solves the problem by commandeering about 7GB of storage from your PC and turning it into "reserved storage. "This space is used for Windows updates, but programs can also store temporary files here. When Windows needs space for updates, it deletes the temporary files and performs the update. Thus, the space is not totally wasted because the files that would normally have been used on your computer will remain in the reserved storage space.

The exact amount of storage used depends on the optional features and languages ​​that you have installed, but the storage capacity starts at about 7 GB.

RELATED: Windows 10 will soon "reserve" 7GB of your storage for updates

Individual users can now suspend updates, too!

The Windows Update Settings page with paused updates

Microsoft says that is "[made] Pause Update is easier to find "by placing it directly on the main page> Settings> Update & Security> Windows Update.

However, that's not all. Microsoft did not announce it officially, but the paused update feature now works with the personal editions of Windows 10– At least in the versions of Insider, so it could change easily. Individual users can now suspend updates for up to seven days. This is a nice feature if you need a temporary respite due to updates. However, as in the professional version of Windows 10, Windows Update will immediately check for and install updates after it has been paused. Windows 10 Professional users can always pause updates up to 35 days at a time.

RELATED: Windows 10 Home will let you finally suspend updates

A light office theme

New bright theme of Windows 10Microsoft

Windows 10 now has a new bright theme. The Start menu, taskbar, notifications, the action center sidebar, the Print dialog box and other interface elements can now be clear instead of. to be dark. The latest update of Windows 10 even includes a new default wallpaper corresponding to the new theme.

Technically, Windows 10 now has two distinct options: Windows mode and application mode. The old default theme, which combined a dark taskbar (dark Windows mode) and clear applications (clear application mode) is still an option. You can choose any combination of the two parameters.

The File Explorer icon has been slightly changed to get brighter colors and looks better with the new light theme.

RELATED: The next version of Windows 10 includes a lightweight theme

Windows Sandbox for Business Users

Windows sandbox

Windows 10 now has a built-in Windows Sandbox. That's all we've always wanted: An integrated and isolated desktop environment in which you can run software in a container without affecting your host operating system. When you close the sandbox, all the software and files that it contains are deleted. He uses material virtualization keep the software confined in a container, as Microsoft Hyper-V.

Sandbox is only available on the Professional, Enterprise and Education editions of Windows. Therefore, individual users will have to pay to upgrade from House to Pro to install and use the sandbox.

RELATED: How to use the new Windows 10 sandbox (to test applications safely)

A default boot menu less cluttered

The new default Start menu layout for the April 2019 update

Microsoft is clean the default Start menu. The default Start menu contains only one column and is much simpler. Yes, it's not perfect and there's always Candy Crush Saga, but at least this game is buried in a "Play" folder.

You will not see these changes on an existing PC. However, when you start using a new PC or a new user account on your current PC, you will see a cleaner Start menu.

RELATED: The next update of Windows 10 makes the Start Menu less terrible

You can also delete default tile groups more quickly if you prefer to have a cleaner Start menu. Windows now allows you to unpin groups of tiles by right-clicking them and selecting the "Delete group from the beginning" option. You no longer have to remove the tiles one by one.

RELATED: The next update of Windows 10 allows you to detach Crapware tiles in 6 clicks

Windows 10 allows you to uninstall more built-in applications

Shortcut menu from an application tile in the Windows 10 Start menu

If you want completely uninstall integrated applications, now you can. Windows 10 still allows you to uninstall some built-in applications such as Solitaire, My Office, and Skype, but you can now also uninstall built-in applications such as 3D Viewer, Groove Music, Mail, Paint 3D, and more.

This does not extend to all applications. There is still no way to remove the Edge browser or the Store app, for example. But you can delete most applications.

RELATED: The next version of Windows 10 will allow you to uninstall more integrated applications

Cortana and the search bar separate

Cortana and the search bar separated in the taskbar

Windows 10 has a built-in search bar in Cortana, but they are separating. In the April 2019 update, the search bar functions as a normal search box. A separate Cortana icon appears in the Windows taskbar. You can leave the search box in the taskbar and hide the Cortana icon or hide the search field and leave Cortana. Of course, you can also hide both.

The search interface has a new starting design and offers options such as "All", "Applications", "Documents", "Email" and "Web" after clicking on it. This is different from previous versions of Windows 10, which indicated to Cortana each time you clicked the box and wait for you to type a search to present these options.

Unfortunately, the standard Windows search bar always incorporates the results of the online search with Bing. It does not just search your PC. There are also other options – you can even disable SafeSearch for results in the search bar, and Windows will show you previews of adult-only content for whatever reason.

But that indicates an interesting breakthrough and a decrease in the relevance of Cortana. Now you can leave the search bar in the taskbar and disable the icon Cortana, thus putting Alexa in its place.

RELATED: Cortana leaves the search bar of Windows 10, but Bing Stays

The Start menu searches all the files on your PC

New file search interface in the taskbar under Windows 10 1903

The search field of the Start menu, however, becomes much more useful! The file search function in the Start menu can now search for files anywhere on your PC with the help of the Windows search index. In previous versions of Windows 10, he searched only for libraries such as Documents, Downloads, Music, Pictures, Videos, and your Desktop. The search will always be fast thanks to the index.

It is an elegant solution and that makes a lot of sense. The Windows Search Indexer has been around for a long time and has always been ignored by the Windows 10 Start Menu for some reason, but Microsoft has finally seen the light. You can configure the indexed and searched locations from the Settings application.

To enable it, go to Settings> Search> Find in Windows and select "Enhanced (Recommended)" to have the indexer search all your PC. The "classic" indexing mode, which only searches your libraries and your desktop, is always available as an option. You can also customize search locations to choose specific folders indexed by Windows.

RELATED: The next version of Windows 10 will finally solve the search for Start menu files

Login without password

Reset PIN dialog box on the Windows Welcome screenMicrosoft

Microsoft continues "a world without passwords". You can now create a Microsoft account without an online password. This account is linked to your phone number and Microsoft sends you a SMS security code every time you try to connect.

On the latest version of Windows 10, you can now log in to Windows 10 with these accounts without a password and set up a Windows Bonjour PIN or other login feature to secure your computer. The account does not have a password to type.

Of course, it is not obligatory. It's just a new type of optional account that you do not have to create.

RELATED: Microsoft wants to remove passwords, from Windows 10

System tray icon for Windows Update

Windows Update icon in the notification area

Windows Update now a notification icon (system tray) for updates. You can go to Settings> Update & Security> Windows Update> Advanced Options and enable the option "Show notification when your PC needs a restart to complete the update" to enable it.

Once you have finished, a Windows Update icon with an orange dot appears in the notification area of ​​the taskbar when you need to restart your PC for updates. It's a nicer way to be alerted to a required reboot than a full-screen message; for sure.

RELATED: The Windows 10 System Tray Receives a Restart Icon for Updates

A new naming scheme for updates (for the moment)

Captain America shield on a Windows 10 screen backgroundVankherson / Shutterstock.com.

Microsoft is constantly changing the naming scheme for Windows 10 updates. The October 2018 update for Windows 10 was named Redstone 5 during development. The four previous versions were also "Redstone" versions with different numbers. To make things even simpler, the April 2019 update was named 19H1, with its release scheduled for the first half of 2019.

This sounds simple, except that Microsoft has already abandoned the new naming scheme and is about to change the denomination next time. Versions after 19H1 would be codenamed "Vanadium" and "Vibranium", the Windows 10 team now aligning its name with that of Azure.

RELATED: Get ready for Windows 10 "Vanadium" and "Vibranium"

Zoom (and more) in the console

Experimental Terminal Settings in PowerShell

The Windows 10 console now allows you to zoom in and out. Just hold down the Ctrl key and scroll down with your mouse or trackpad. With the default Consolas font, the console text is resized and does not look very pixelated, regardless of zoom magnification. The aspect ratio of the frame remains the same, so the text does not overflow on different lines.

There are also some new ones features of the experimental console you can adjust. Right-click on the title bar of any console window, select "Properties," and then click the "Terminal" tab to find them. For example, you can configure the color and shape of the text entry cursor.

RELATED: The next update of Windows 10 brings a "Zoom" feature to the console

More automatic troubleshooting

Troubleshooting options in settings

Windows had troubleshooters for a while, but you had to know the type of problem your PC was having, and then access the appropriate troubleshooter. Now you can simply navigate to Settings> Update & Security> Troubleshoot. You will see a list of recommended convenience stores that Windows thinks can solve your problem.

In fact, Windows automatically tries to fix some problems in the background. This is what Microsoft said about that:

Microsoft can automatically fix some critical issues on your Windows device so that it continues to work properly. For example, we can automatically restore default settings for critical services, adjust feature settings to match your hardware configuration, or make other specific changes necessary for normal Windows operation. Critical troubleshooting occurs automatically and can not be disabled.

Windows can also perform the recommended troubleshooting in the background. To see if this happens, go to Settings> Privacy> Diagnostics and Comments. Under Recommended Troubleshooting, select "Ask me before solving problems," "Tell me when problems are fixed" or "Solve problems for me without asking for anything." By default, Windows 10 is set to ask.

Hidden notifications in full screen applications

Notification of Focus Assist in the action center

The next update of Windows 10 can also hide notifications while watching videos or use another application in full screen with an enhancement of Focus Assist. Focus Assist can already hide notifications when you play in a full-screen game, but it can now work when you're using an app, whether it's a video player, a full-screen spreadsheet, or a web browser after pressing the F11 key .

RELATED: The next update of Windows 10 will hide notifications while you watch videos

Notebook improvements, again

Notebook showing the new features of 19H1

Yes, Microsoft is still working on Notepad even after all the improvements made in the October 2018 update.

Microsoft has also made changes to the way Notepad handles encodings. The status bar now shows the encoding of the open document. Notepad can now save files in UTF-8 format without a byte order mark, which is now the default. This makes Notepad more web-friendly, where UTF-8 is the default and compatible with earlier ASCII versions.

The notebook will now have an asterisk in the title bar when the current file has been edited and not saved. For example, if you are working on a file named Example.txt and making changes, the title bar will say "* Example.txt" until you save the file.

New shortcuts are also available. Press Ctrl + Shift + N to open a new Notepad window, Ctrl + Shift + S to open the Save As dialog box, or Ctrl + W to close the current Notepad window. Notepad can also save files with a path greater than 260 characters if you wish. set a larger MAX_PATH on your system.

There is also a new Help> Send Feedback option that opens the Comments Center to the Notepad category so that you can send comments to Microsoft.

More improvements and changes

The Windows 10 Settings application displaying the new banner at the top of the home page

You will see a banner at the top of the "Home page" of the Settings app with your Microsoft account and links to common tasks such as Your phone, Windows Update – and Microsoft Rewards, for some reasons.

New emoji in the update of April 2019Microsoft

The official version of Emoji 12 is due out in March 2019 and Microsoft has added a new emoji to Windows 10 in preparation. As always, you can press Windows +. (period) to open the emoji panel anywhere under Windows 10. They are also available on the touch keyboard.

Kaomoji in the emoji panel under Windows 10

Windows 10 also supports kaomoji in the emoji picker. Kaomoji is a Japanese term that translates as "the characters of the face. For example, (╯ ° □ °) is a popular kaomoji.

And, when you open the emoji panel, you can now click or tap and drag to move it.

The file explorer now displays the "friendly dates" by default. Thus, rather than dates such as "23/01/2019", you will see dates such as "Yesterday", "Tuesday", "January 11" and "February 16, 2016".

You can disable it by right-clicking the top of the columns in the File Explorer window and unchecking "Use reference dates". This will return the old format.

Windows 10 Storage Settings

The Storage Settings page has also been slightly modified. Go to Settings> System> Storage to see how your space is used. You can click on each category to find actions that will free up space.

Date and time options in settings

The Settings> Time & Language> Date & Time screen displays a "Synchronize Now" button to immediately synchronize your clock with an Internet Time Server. It also tells you the date of the last time synchronization and the current Internet time server address of your system. It helps if your time is bad for some reason, such as if Windows does not change your clock correctly for the summer time.

Manual IP Configuration in Windows 10 Settings

The Settings application can now configure advanced IP settings for Ethernet connections. For example, you can configure a static IP address or set your preferred DNS server. Previously, this required the use of the Control Panel. Go to Settings> Network and Internet> Ethernet, click the name of your Ethernet connection, and then click "Edit" in the IP settings to search for these options.

Active hours options in settings

Windows Update had "Active hours"Since the birthday update. You can tell Windows when you use your PC and it will not restart automatically during these hours.

In the update of April 2019, you can enable a new setting "Automatically adjust the active hours of this device according to the activity" and Windows will automatically set your active hours so that you do not have to. do not have to think about it. This option is available in Settings> Update and Security> Windows Update> Change Active Hours.

There is now a new globe icon that appears when your computer does not have an Internet connection. This replaces the previous individual icons for Ethernet, Wi-Fi, and cellular data connections.

The microphone icon in the Windows 10 notification area

Windows also has a microphone status icon. This icon appears in your notification when an application uses your microphone. You can mouse over to see which application uses your microphone. Click on it to open the Settings> Privacy screen> Microphone.

Protection History in Windows SecurityMicrosoft

The Windows security application, the antivirus and security application built into Windows 10, now features a redesigned "Protection History" pane. It shows you more information about detected threats and available actions. For example, in addition to the threats detected by the Windows Defender antivirus, it also shows you the blocks initiated by Controlled access to files.

Anti-fraud protection in Windows security

Windows security now has a new "Protection against forgery" option. When enabled, this setting protects important security settings. For example, it restricts changes to most options controlled by the Windows Security application unless you open it and make changes to it. This prevents programs from modifying them in the background. To enable this setting, go to Windows Security> Virus and Threat Protection> Virus and Threat Protection Settings.

The menu of the Set As Default tab in the Windows 10 Task Manager

You can define a default tab in the task manager. This tab opens every time you start the task manager. To do this, use Options> Set Default Tab in Task Manager.

Task Manager displaying the DPI Awareness column

The task manager now displays the high sensitivity of your system's processes so you can see more information about the applications that will work properly with high resolution displays. To find this option, open the Task Manager, click on the Details tab, right-click on the headers at the top of the list, click on "Select columns", check the box "DPI Sensitization" In the list, then click "OK".

Microsoft also enables the default "Fix Scaling for Apps" option. This will help correct fuzzy applications on high resolution displays. This has been added to Windows 10 in the Updated April 2018but Microsoft has left it off by default to be conservative.

Windows 10 Home Screen with Acrylic Background

The login screen now has an "acrylic" background that fits seamlessly into the new "Fluent Design System" from Microsoft. Previously, she was more blurry: it was a different visual effect.

Speaking of Fluent Design, Microsoft also adds shadows to Microsoft Edge context menus and other elements of the operating system.

Power Options in the Start Menu

The Start menu design has also been slightly modified. It has more "Fluent Design" buttons and icons in the menus. For example, the Pause, Stop, and Restart options in the menu now have icons.

The connection options page in the settings

The Windows Hello options in Settings> Accounts> Connection Options have been redesigned. All available connection options are now in a single list and each option has an explanation.

You can also now configure Windows Hello to work with a physical security key (such as a YubiKey key) directly from the Settings application.

The brightness slider in the center of action of Windows 10Microsoft

The Brightness thumbnail under Quick Actions in the Maintenance Center is now a slider, which makes it easy to quickly change the brightness level of your screen. You can now right-click on a quick action thumbnail and select "Edit Quick Actions" to quickly edit your mosaics directly in the sidebar without also opening the Settings application.

The new symbols page of the Windows 10 touch keyboard

The touch keyboard now allows you to enter more symbols. To find them, press the old "& 123" button to display the symbols and numbers, then press the new "Ω" button to display additional symbols. These symbols are also integrated into the Emoji Selector.

The tactile keyboard showing how to adapt the tactile targetsMicrosoft

This same touch keyboard now helps you type more precisely by dynamically adjusting the targets around each key. So, if you are often mistaken in a letter by tapping a little to the left or right, you will learn. It happens in an invisible way, under the hood.

The cursor and pointer settings page of Windows 10

Windows now allows you to choose a color and cursor size. You can enlarge the slider and change its color, which makes it more visible. Go to Settings> Ease of Access> Cursor and Pointer to see the available options.

Even more changes!

There are always tons of new changes in these versions of Windows 10. Even though it's not a complete list! But here are some others:

Updates of the application: Various applications provided with Windows have been updated as usual. For example, the Snip & Sketch application provides more options for using screen captures, including the ability to add a border to them and print them. He can now take delayed screenshots on a timer and screenshots of individual windows. Sticky Notes 3.0 is available, and finally synchronize your notes between computers. The Mail and Calendar app now has a navigation button to open Microsoft To-Do. The game bar has an integrated gallery that allows you to see screenshots and videos directly from the game bar interface. The Office application has been redesigned to be based on the new Office.com experience. It helps you launch Office applications on your computer, install non-desktop applications, and search for recently used Office documents.
Cortana + Microsoft to do: Cortana now adds your reminders and tasks to Microsoft To-Do lists. So when you ask Cortana to add milk to your grocery list, you will see that the milk appears in the "Grocery" list of the Microsoft To-Do application.
Luminosité d'affichage constante: La luminosité de votre écran ne change pas automatiquement lorsque vous le branchez sur un chargeur. Auparavant, vous avez peut-être réduit la luminosité de votre écran et celui-ci peut devenir plus lumineux lorsque vous le branchez. Il mémorisera automatiquement votre luminosité préférée, même lorsque vous le branchez.
Téléchargement du dossier de tri: Le dossier Téléchargements de Windows 10 sera trié par «plus récent» par défaut, ce qui place vos dossiers les plus récemment téléchargés au premier plan. Cela a toujours été une option, mais ce n’était pas la valeur par défaut. Si vous avez choisi une méthode de tri par défaut, votre paramètre actuel ne sera pas modifié.
Avertissement de nettoyage de disqueL'outil Nettoyage de disque affiche désormais un avertissement lorsque vous cliquez sur l'option “Téléchargements”, vous avertissant qu'il s'agit de votre dossier de téléchargements personnel et que tous les fichiers qu'il contient seront supprimés.
Redémarrage de Windows Update: Windows Update pouvez maintenant redémarrer votre PC immédiatement après l'installation des mises à jour plutôt que d'attendre un moment plus opportun. C’est un paramètre facultatif que vous pouvez activer si vous le souhaitez et Windows Update sera plus prévenant par défaut.
Amélioration de la fiabilité du menu Démarrer: Le menu Démarrer devient plus fiable. Start faisait auparavant partie du processus ShellExperienceHost.exe, mais est désormais son propre processus: StartMenuExperienceHost.exe. Si un problème survient avec le processus principal ShellExperienceHost.exe, le menu Démarrer doit toujours être réactif. Cela permettra également à Microsoft de résoudre plus facilement les problèmes avec le menu Démarrer.
Support RAW natif: Microsoft ajoute un support natif pour le Format d'image RAW souvent utilisé par les photographes professionnels sous Windows 10. Ouvrez Microsoft Store et installez le package «Raw Image Extension» pour l'utiliser. Cela activera les vignettes, les aperçus et les métadonnées des fichiers RAW dans l'explorateur de fichiers. Vous pouvez également afficher des images RAW dans des applications telles que Photos après avoir installé le package.
Gestion des polices dans les paramètres: La gestion des polices est améliorée. Vous pouvez maintenant faire glisser des fichiers de polices dans la page Paramètres> Polices pour les installer. Vous pouvez cliquer sur une police sur cette page pour afficher ses faces et ses détails, ou désinstaller une police à partir d'ici. (Cela installe la police pour un seul utilisateur. Pour l'installer à l'échelle du système, cliquez avec le bouton droit de la souris sur un fichier de police et sélectionnez «Installer pour tous les utilisateurs».)
Refonte de l'historique du presse-papiers: Le Afficheur de l'historique du presse-papiers rajouté dans le Mise à jour d'octobre 2018 a un nouveau design, plus compact. Appuyez sur Windows + V pour l'ouvrir.
Réinitialisation du code PIN simplifiée: Lorsque vous vous connectez à Windows 10 avec un code PIN, vous pouvez cliquer sur le lien «J'ai oublié mon code PIN» pour afficher une nouvelle interface simplifiée permettant de réinitialiser votre code PIN directement à partir de l'écran d'accueil.
Couleurs dans les listes de sauts de la barre des tâchesSi vous indiquez à Windows d’afficher votre couleur d’accent dans la barre des tâches à partir de Paramètres> Personnalisation> Couleurs, les listes de sauts apparaissant après le clic droit sur une icône de votre barre des tâches seront également associées à la couleur de votre choix.
Sous-système Windows pour Linux: Sous-système Windows pour Linux outil de ligne de commande wsl dispose maintenant de nouvelles options, notamment les options –import et –export pour importer et exporter des distributions Linux à l’aide de fichiers d'archive tar. Microsoft consolide également certaines choses – la commande wsl inclut désormais des options de la commande wslconfig et Microsoft envisage de mettre à jour la commande wsl avec des options de ligne de commande ultérieurement.
Augmentation de la limite de créneau FLS: Microsoft raised Limite d’allocation des logements FLS (Fibre Local Storage) de Windows 10. Ceci est particulièrement utile pour les musiciens, qui pourront charger davantage de plug-ins uniques dans leurs stations de travail audio numériques. Cela aidera également toute autre application souhaitant charger des centaines ou des milliers de fichiers DLL uniques.
Améliorations du narrateur: Le narrateur a un “Lu par phrase”Fonction que vous pouvez indiquer pour lire les phrases en cours, suivantes et précédentes. De plus, Narrator fonctionne mieux avec Google Chrome, ce qui est logique, car Microsoft Edge sera un jour basé sur Chromium, le logiciel open source à la base de Google Chrome. Narrator vous avertira même si la touche Verr Maj est activée lorsque vous commencez à taper. Il possède également une nouvelle interface «Narrator Home» qui apparaît chaque fois que vous activez Narrator.
Réinitialiser cette refonte de l'ordinateur: Le "Réinitialiser ce PC”Interface qui réinitialise votre PC à son état d'origine a été légèrement repensée et nécessite désormais moins de clics.
Refonte des paramètres d'initiés: Le Windows Insider Les paramètres de Paramètres> Mise à jour et sécurité> Programme Windows Insider ont également été simplifiés et simplifiés, mais toutes les mêmes options sont toujours disponibles.
Le son dans la zone de notification reste identiqueRemarque: Dans les versions précédentes de 19H1 d’Insider, Microsoft avait déjà essayé de faire en sorte que la barre d’icône du son ouvrait la page Son dans l’application Paramètres. Cette modification a été annulée et l’option du menu contextuel de l’icône de volume ouvre maintenant la fenêtre du mélangeur de volume de bureau classique.
Mon peuple: Microsoft peut tuer la fonctionnalité «My People» de Windows 10 à un moment donné, mais cela n’a pas été officiellement confirmé.

D'autres nouvelles fonctionnalités incluent la prise en charge de langues supplémentaires dans le système d'exploitation. Par exemple, l'intelligence de frappe de SwiftKey prend désormais en charge des langues telles que l'anglais (Canada), le français (Canada), le portugais (Portugal) et l'espagnol (États-Unis). Si vous écrivez en vietnamien, le clavier tactile prend désormais en charge les claviers vietnamiens télex et basés sur des touches numériques (VNI). Windows contient également une police Ebrima qui prend en charge les documents et les pages Web ADLaM, qui est la langue du peuple Fulani, qui vit principalement en Afrique de l’Ouest.

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